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Health Guarantee & Sales Agreement:


A ($350 ) non-refundable but transferable deposit will hold a pup of your choice. No personal checks for final payments accepted. We accept cash or Square Payments to be completed (at puppy pick day for those shipping- this payment is super important to schedule shipping or due at puppy pick up for those NOT shipped).

This puppy is guaranteed to be in good health and has been vaccinated and de-wormed properly for the pup's present age. The puppy will receive NeoPar and NeoVac Da2 immunizations which offers protection against Canine Distemper, Adenovirus Type 2, and Parvovirus Vaccine. He or she will have been wormed according to our worming schedule 2, 4, 6, & 8 weeks of age, you will continue the worming schedule at 8, 10, 12 & 16 weeks of age, at 6 months & 1 year. Then deworm every 6 months as an adult. Breeder will provide accurate health records of this puppy.  This guarantee is warranted to the original purchaser for three days. The buyer should have the puppy examined by a licensed veterinarian within three days of pick up/delivery. Breeder isn't responsible for vet bills. Should the veterinarian find this puppy to have serious life-threatening illness or disease, (excluding parasites, umbilical hernias, coccidia or giardia) breeder will replace your puppy with another puppy of equal value when one is available. Documentation of proof from a licensed veterinarian must be presented to breeder within 7 days of purchasing. Breeder not responsible for transportation costs. Breeder reserves the right to have the puppy examined by a licensed veterinarian of their choice to verify diagnosis before replacing.

This puppy is guaranteed to the original buyer for (3) three years against genetic diseases. We do not guarantee against dysplasia as can be as much environmental, physical, and nutrition related.
$750 pet price for those who agree to sign a spay neuter contract or add an additional $250 for full breeding rights.

For Limited registration: Buyer will NOT receive CKC registration papers on CKC registerable puppies unless breeding rights are paid for is an additional $250. Dogs should be spayed/neutered no sooner than 12 months of age. Please talk to your Vet to see what they recommend. Some are recommending younger, I feel later is better.

Puppies are not sold on a trial basis, please be committed for the life of the dog. If a situation arises where you can't keep this dog you may contact us and we will do our best to place this dog in a new home, but no refunds or exchanges will be given. We have the right to refuse sales to anyone at any time. We are happy to announce availability on our website and send interested folks your number, you work out details between you.

We breed for temperament. Every effort has been made by the breeder to produce a litter both physically and mentally sound, still some things are in Mother Nature’s hands. We can't guarantee color, coat or show quality but we can give our best educated and honest opinion.

It is required by the buyer to find a reputable veterinarian to keep this puppy up to date on shots and health issues. Breeder assumes no responsibility for the puppy after it leaves the premises for medical expenses, family disputes or any other problem that you have not thought out. I do not pay veterinarian bills or transportation costs under any circumstances.

Please consider all pros and cons to adding a puppy to your life before you purchase this new member of your family! Please know the breed or research the breed before buying the puppy. It takes good breeding and a good dog owner to get a good dog. We have done our part and now you must do yours to keep your new puppy safe, happy and healthy.

If for any reason the buyer has to rehome their puppy we as the breeder must be notified and have the option of first choice. If the puppy is rehomed the buyer must notify the breeder and must be given contact information of the new buyer.

I understand by signing this agreement it becomes a binding contract and I acknowledge that I have read, understand and agree to the conditions of this sales agreement. I agree if any legal action is required it will be processed in Hardin (County), Tennessee (State).






NAME OF SIRE_______________
NAME OF DAM_______________

The following agreement is between
(breeder), hereafter referred to as "Seller", and
____________________________, hereafter referred to as
"Purchaser" In consideration of a purchase price of ($750) of which ($350) is a nonrefundable deposit, the Seller transfers all rights in fee simple determinable, privileges and responsibilities associated with the ownership of the female/male puppy of the Puppy to Purchaser as of the date and time specified below with the following conditions subsequent:
Purchaser agrees to neuter/spay the puppy no later than 16 months of age. Studies are showing that the older the pup the better it is for their joints. Purchaser agrees to supply Seller with a veterinarian's letter by mail or email as proof of a neuter/spay. If Purchaser fails to neuter/spay this puppy and provide proof to the Seller, rights and ownership of the dog will automatically terminate and revert back to Seller who may immediately assume possession of the dog. Seller's reasonable attorney's fees for recovery of the dog will be paid by the Purchaser.

 This puppy is being sold as pet only, unless purchasing breeding rights. Buyer agrees to have the puppy spayed/neutered by 16 months of age. Proof of spay/neuter must be in writing by a licensed veterinarian. Failure to comply will be considered breach of the contract and the health guarantee will be void. Buyer agrees to pay a $5,000 to breeder for contract breach, and all court costs and attorney fees, if found to have bred puppy, intentionally or accidentally. All contract disputes will be handled in the County of Hardin, State of Tennessee

It is understood by all parties to this agreement that this puppy of the above specified description is of pet quality unless otherwise stated by purchasing breeding rights. 

We the undersigned have read, understood and agree with the terms of this contract.

Date ___________




What will be in my puppies go home bag?

scented blanket

2 bowls

a leash and collar

2-3 toys, a chew

vaccination records

a bag of training treats 

(due to covid and lack of most of our go home bag products we are down to a limited bag as listed above...when we are able to return to our full bag as products become available again we will increase bag contents)


Our Recommended Vaccination Schedule:

Shots We Give

 (5 weeks) of age
NEOPAR® (Canine Parvovirus Vaccine)

(6 weeks) of age
NEOVAC® DA2 (Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine)

 (7 weeks) of age
NEOPAR® (Canine Parvovirus Vaccine)

After Going Home

 (8 weeks) of age
NEOVAC® DA2  (Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine)

70 days (10 weeks) of age
NEOPAR® (Canine Parvovirus Vaccine)
NEOVAC® DA2 (Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine)

98 days (14 weeks) of age
NEOPAR® (Canine Parvovirus Vaccine)
NEOVAC® DA2 (Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine)

6 months old  Puppy will need a Rabies shot by a licensed Vet


Worming Schedule

Pyrantel Pamoate dosage (0.5 ml per lb dog weight) at 2 weeks 

Safeguard dosage (1cc/5lbs dog weight) at 4 weeks (for 3 days), 6 weeks (for 7 days),

Toltrazuril 5% dosage (0.10cc/lb)  7 weeks for 3 days


Worming after they go home:  8 weeks, 10 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks- Safeguard liquid wormer for goats bought at feed supply stores (D&B Supply, Tractor Supply) for 7 days THIS IS EXACTLY VET PANACUR C just you wont need a prescription and its much cheaper to get...Fenbendazole suspension 10% 100mg/ml (brand names Panacur®, Safe-Guard®) is a medication used to treat a variety of parasites (e.g., roundworms, hookworms, lungworm, whipworm, and certain types of tapeworms) in dogs.

Troncil Plus (

6 months, 12 months. Then twice a year.

There are many different wormers, trick here, is make sure it contains praziquantel. I recommend worming with Troncil Plus (generic Drontal Plus) link listed below. 

Some wormers offer only pyrantel pamoate and Praziquantel and they are OK but this is better option with the addition of Febantel.

(praziquantel/pyrantel pamoate/febantel) Broad Spectrum Chewable Anthelmintic Tablets are indicated for removal of Tapeworms ( Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus,and removal and control of Echinococcus multilocularis) and for removal of Hookworms ( Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala), Ascarids ( Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), and Whipworms ( Trichuris vulpis) in dogs





Canine Parvovirus Vaccine, Modified Live Virus

Description: NEOPAR® is a modified live virus vaccine containing a high antigenic mass per dose of a highly immunogenic strain of canine parvovirus.

Gentamicin and Amphotericin B are used as preservatives.

Indications: NEOPAR® is for the vaccination of healthy dogs against disease due to canine parvovirus. NEOPAR® is designed to be used primarily where the severe threat of canine parvovirus infections exists in the resident dog population.

This vaccine gives reliable protection against infections by other known strains of canine parvovirus.

NEOPAR® overrides moderate to high antibody levels such as those found in puppies having maternal antibodies or in dogs from pre-existing vaccination. It can be used successfully as a booster for a pre-existing vaccination. Puppies vaccinated with NEOPAR® generated high levels of the IgM and IgG classes of antibodies. Secretory immunity was engendered in the gut. Reversion to virulence does not occur. Field studies indicate that this vaccine is safe in puppies 3 weeks of age or older.


NEOPAR is a modified-live canine parvovirus vaccine. NEOPAR contains a high antigen mass (more vaccine units per dose), which results in a short period from vaccination to protection, a high level of protection, and long duration of immunity. NEOPAR provides reliable protection against infections by other known strains of canine parvovirus. NEOPAR stimulates antibody production in the presence of existing maternal antibodies for protection at an early age. Antibody production begins after the first dose. NEOPAR overrides moderate to high antibody levels such as those found in puppies having maternal antibodies or in dogs from pre-existing vaccination. It can be used successfully as a booster for a pre-existing vaccination.



Canine Distemper Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine – Modified Live Virus


  • Core Disease Protection
    Contains the essential viruses for core protection against the most lethal and prevalent respiratory viral diseases of dogs.

  • Maximum Protection
    Contains a High Antigen Mass (more vaccine units per dose) which results in:

  • Short period from vaccination to protection

  • Higher level of protection (many times greater than the level needed for basic protection)

  • Long duration of immunity

  • Early Age Protection
    Stimulates antibody production in the presence of existing maternal antibodies

  • First Dose Protection
    Antibody production begins after the first dose. Other DA2 vaccines require 2 or 3 doses to stimulate an initial antibody response.

  • Simple Vaccine Combination

  • Eliminates the need to use multi-way “adult vaccines” in the young puppy

  • More efficient in stimulating antibody production than complex combination vaccines

  • Safety

  • Found to be safe for use in young puppies

  • No post–vaccination shedding of canine distemper virus; therefore, no chance of vaccine induced disease

Less likely to produce a vaccine reaction than complex combination vac


What Puppy Food?

We free feed our puppies Diamond Naturals Large breed puppy Lamb and Rice. We recommend feeding a large breed puppy food to your puppy for a minimum of a year up to 18 months. It is important that your puppy growth is slow and steady. Too much weight and bulk too soon is hard on growing joints.  Sold at D&B Supply, Tractor Supply, most Farm Supply and


  • Appropriate nutrient levels to fuel larger growing bodies

  • Calcium and phosphorus for bone and joint development

  • DHA for proper brain and vision development

  • L-Carnitine helps convert fat to energy

  • Enhanced with superfoods and guaranteed probiotics

Dog Food Change -- if you would like to change dog food please follow this guide in switching:

75/25 for 3 days then if Good (no loose stool)

50/50 for three days then if Good (no loose stool)  

75/25 for three days then if Good (no loose stool)

100% new food *** at any point they get loose poo go back to the mix you were just doing and hold it for three more days then try again


Recomended Puppy Supplies:
​   ~ Crate with a removable divider (we recommend MidWest brand 36” to 42” size)
   ~ Puppy Play Pen (NorthStates “MyPet” play yard or MidWest)
   ~ Food Diamond Naturals Large Breed puppy food Lamb and Rice
Optional: Slow Feeder or Water Dishes available on Amazon if your puppy is eating or drinking too fast. If you free feed as we recommend we find these completely unnecessary.
   ~ Collar (Size 10-14 inches depending on your puppy!)
   ~ I.D. Tag  (We recommend to have “Microchipped” somewhere on the tag)
   ~ Leash (NON-Retractable, please) 
   ~ Harness (TrueLove brand, Ruffwear, Rabbitgoo & Voyager are among the top brands)
​   ~ Furminator Comb
   ~ Bells for your door (for your puppy to communicate with you when he/she need to use the potty outside)
   ~ Ear Cleaner- Witch Hazel- clean ears weekly
   ~ Shampoo

      Rinse with apple cider Vinegar
   ~ Toys: "Kong", Nylabone & All time Favorite “Happy Moppy”
  ~ Snuggle Puppy (SmartPetLove Brand on Amazon)
   ~ Chews: Bully Sticks, Deer antlers and pig's hooves
   ~ Treats  American Journey  Grain-Free Soft & Chewy Training Bits Dog Treats, 4-oz 
   ~ Child safety Gates/ Pet containment Gates
   ~ Dog Bed: *Kuranda or K9 Ballistics Indestructible beds   
   ~ Pooper Scooper (for your yard)
Extras for Goldendoodles:
   ~ Clippers Andis UltraEdge Super 2-Speed Detachable Blade Clipper, Professional Animal/Dog Grooming, AGC2 speeds 3400-4400 spm 
   ~ Spray bottle (for misting coat prior to grooming)
  ~ Child Safety scissors (for grooming around the eyes)

Extra Supplies that everyone may need:
   ~ Bedding and Pet Bed cover
   ~ Toy Bin
   ~ Latex Gloves
   ~ Bitter Apple Spray (to deter destructive chewing)
   ~ Non-Stick floor matt (for underneath food/water dishes)
   ~ Nature's Miracle Spray Cleaner
​   ~ Clorox/Lysol Cleaning Wipes



Transporting your Puppy:
PLEASE Remember not to allow your puppy to touch any surface that another dog has touched, that you DO NOT KNOW the vaccination history of.  (Parvo virus is highly contagious and is your puppy's greatest risk.) 

Short Distance Driving Transport (Less than Three hours)
​    ~ Travel crate or Laundry Basket
    ~ Puppy pads 
    ~ Garbage bags
    ~ Old towels/paper towels
    ~ Hand Sanitizer
    ~ Clorox wipes (for your vehicle ~ just in case!)

Long Distance Driving Transport (Three hours or more)
​​    ~ Travel crate/Carrier
    ~ Travel bag (for supplies)
    ~ Puppy pads 
    ~ Garbage bags
    ~ Old towels/paper towels
    ~ Hand Sanitizer
    ~ Clorox wipes (for your vehicle ~ just in case!)
    ~ Collapsible Water & Food dishes
    ~ Bottled water

We offer flight nanny shipping $400 from Memphis TN, Nashville TN

Airline Travel if you fly in to pick up:
​​    ~ Airline Approved Soft-sided Travel Carrier (my preference is "Sherpa")
 (Be sure that you check on the exact dimensions the airline requires, prior to purchase)
    ~ Contact airline and get puppy added to your ticket as carry on will cost an additional average of $100 or more for puppy to add on to your ticket
    ~ Puppy pads 
    ~ Hand Sanitizer
    ~ Clorox wipes
    ~ Collapsible Water & Food dishes
    ~ Bottle of water

Please remember to:
​   ~ Set up your puppy's Veterinary Examination with your Veterinarian
      (We recommend doing this several weeks ahead of time)
  ~ Order your puppy's bag of dog food so it is delivered prior to puppies arrival carries it..
  ~ Research Pet Insurance to see if it is a good fit for you.



Highlights of Going Home:

Do not change puppies food or give treats for the first week of adjusting. Puppies are under stress leaving their mama and siblings and effects each puppy differently. Not changing or adding food helps puppy.  If puppy gets loose stool after leaving that is normal for some puppies under stress. Get a large can of  100 % pure pumpkin and store in Tupperware in refrigerator offer puppy 1 tablespoon 3 times a day until gone. Pumpkin adds fiber, helps with inflammation and is very healthy.


*** When adding in treats do it modestly think of it as giving your child candy. When switching dog food, please consider a large breed puppy food for minimum of 12 months but if youd like to switch to a new food—switching should go slowly.

Dog Food Change -- if you would like to change dog food please follow this guide in switching:

75/25 for 3 days then if Good (no loose stool)

50/50 for three days then if Good (no loose stool)  

75/25 for three days then if Good (no loose stool)

100% new food *** at any point they get loose poo go back to the mix you were just doing and hold it for three more days then try again

  1. Puppy is teething like a baby freeze ice cubes 50/50 with low sodium broth offer as a treat. Put puppy toys in a zip lock and freeze and alternate giving back puppy the frozen cold toys throughout the day.

  2. Starting off on the right foot potty training: 1st 2-3 days at home  puppy should be on a leash with you when not in a kennel. Puppy is currently doggy door trained and has not had an accident in the house in weeks. Your new home they have no idea how to get out or how to tell you they need out. We recommend using Potty bells. Keeping them with you on a leash when they are not in their crate will stop accidents before they start. Take puppy out every two hours during the day to the exact same spot outside EXACTLY, a place out of human traffic, someplace you want them to choose long term. Bring them there say “potty or whatever”, absolutely no playing-- business only!! Praise them when they do the deed. Remove them from the area before playing. Puppy should be taken out when sniffing the ground, circling, whimpering, barking, after waking up, within 15 minutes of eating and drinking.

  3. Worming your puppy is important, one of the very best things you can do for the health of your puppy. Follow the worming schedule ---Buy the safeguard wormer for goats it is Fenbendazole exact same as Panacur C just much cheaper!


8 weeks, 10 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks- Safeguard liquid wormer for goats (fenbendazole) bought at feed supply store for 7 days. Basically, a week off between dosing.



Troncil Plus or Drontal Plus at 6 months, 12 months. Then twice a year for lifetime.

There are many different wormers, trick here, is make sure it contains praziquantel. I recommend worming with Troncil Plus which is generic Drontal.

  1. Puppy has been on a vaccination schedule we have given their first shots of  NeoPar and Neo Vac Da2 so puppy has the best foundation for going home. We stop where we do in our vaccination schedule to prevent OVER vaccination. When taking puppy home they are ready for their next shots from Your Vet. Your Vet will offer a 5 way or 6 way which is multiple vaccines at once. We encourage you to complete the puppy vaccine schedule and please try to be as on time with the vaccines and wormings as possible! Please be sparing with the quantity of vaccines given at one time. If you do the 5 way wait between that and the next vaccines. Research vaccines before giving them to your puppy to make an informed choice. Some things they want to vaccinate against will merely make your puppy ill say for example kennel cough but the side effects of certain vaccines could be very bad. Some dogs have allergies and run reactions to vaccine while others show no symptoms. Lepto vaccine is one we choose not to do because so many dogs have reacted to this vaccine. Do your research make informed choices. We vaccinate against those that kill--Parvo and Distemper. Wait until puppy is 6 months old for the Rabies vaccine and make sure puppy only receives rabies by itself on that day. Rabies is a very strong Vaccine.


Avoid multi dog areas until puppy is fully vaccinated and then wait two weeks after puppy receives final puppy vaccine series. No dog parks! No public places!



Puppy Training

I love Zak George dog trainer and reccomend his Youtube training videos! 

Zak George’s Dog Training Revolution - YouTube

Bringing home your new pup is a very VERY exciting day for new puppy owners! Keep in mind that for the puppy, his whole life just changed in a matter of a moments and he will need some time to adjust to his new surroundings. Starting to teach them manners from the very beginning will help your puppy learn appropriate behavior quickly. Here are a few tips to get you started...

Potty Training

-100% supervision in required in the beginning whenever your pup is not crated. If you are watching your dog and need to run upstairs for a few minutes... crate him. You can be watching them for a while and in the 2 minutes you turn your back they will potty. Puppy should be on a leash with you 24/7 or in the puppy crate first days home. Best to start off dilligently making sure to take them out to the exact same spot out the same door to the same spot out of way of foot traffic somewhere you will want them to go long term. They dont have to go all over your yard you can easily build an outside potty area. For example we had a patch of bark about 5 feet out from our fence before our lawn. We trained our labs to only use the barked area to potty. No burnt grass or steamy piles.

-Watch your pup very closely to learn his cues when he has to go. If you catch him about to go (or in the act of going) give a loud verbal “NO” and pick him up, take outside and tell him to “go potty”. When he goes PRAISE PRAISE PRAISE!!!

-If he went in the house and you didn’t see him- DO NOT correct him. Puppy’s have a very short term memory and he will not understand. This is why supervision is essential in potty training.

- Rule of thumb is to take him out every 2 hours (at minimum) during the day , right after he wakes up and about 15 minutes after he eats. Also, a puppy can only hold it for an hour per every month they are old on average so getting up to take pup out at least once or twice at night is expected when younger. (So a 2 month pup can hold it for approx. 2 hours-They will grow out of this so remember it is temporary)

-If you should take him out and he doesn’t go potty, take him back inside and put straight into the crate. Try again in 15 minutes and repeat the process until he goes. He will learn quickly that in order to play around the house he needs to “go potty” the first time. (You should be telling the pup to “Go Potty” every time you take him out so he learns this verbal cue)

-You can also incorporate a bell by the door for the pup to learn to ring whenever he needs to go out. At first you will ring the bell for him by gently using his paw or nose everytime you go out. You will be surprised how quickly they will pick up what this means.

Body desensitizing

This is something ADULTS do in the beginning until the puppy has no problem with being touched anywhere. Touch the puppy’s ears, muzzle (open mouth, check teeth, etc), all 4 paws and nails, neck, tail, hugging, and brushing. These guys need lots of grooming so getting them used to being handled all over their entire body will make for much less stress come grooming time.

YOU are in charge

-All the toys are YOURS and not the puppy’s. They play with them only when you allow. Do not leave them around the house. This helps keep their play drive alive (which helps with training) and prevents toy aggression.

-Touch him when he is eating, playing, or chewing a bully stick so he is used to it and helps prevent possession issues.

-Only allow them on the furniture (should you want them up there) when they are invited up. If you do not want your adult dog on the sofa do not allow the puppy on the sofa.

-Make your pup listen to you. Never give a command that you don’t follow through with. If you say to sit, puppy doesn’t listen, gently use 2 fingers over his hip area and push down as you say “sit” again. Then use the verbal cue “Good” when pup has done what you asked

Puppy Nipping

Puppies have very sharp teeth that can do damage. They use their mouths to explore new things but need to be taught how to use their mouths politely. Never allow your puppy to bite or chew on anyone for any reason. When puppy starts play biting look him in the eye sternly, and say NO! You have to be persistent in letting your puppy know this is a nonnegostiable issue NO! Puppies like to chew for several reasons but mostly they are teething and it hurts and biting does help alleviate the pain just like a teething human baby you could help by freezing low sodium chicken or beef broth in ice cube trays for them to chew. Freeze chewable dog toys, the cold helps with the swelling and pain. Our dogs love bones we get them from the butcher and they last until we throw them away.

Crate Training Tips

-crate at least 48 inches high for the larger dogs- use divider until puppy is grown

-Dogs are pack animals and want to be with you, so keeping a crate in your room for the puppy to sleep in at night can ease his stress.

You should expect the first several nights to be loud as your puppy adjusts to not only being in a new environment but also being away from all of their litter mates and all that has become familiar to them. We do recommend you crate train your puppy at night to rather you plan to use it when he/she is an adult or not. Some families wish to let their dog have free run of the house when it’s trained and out of the puppy stage, that’s fine, however, it’s important that you not leave them out and free to roam as a puppy as they can chew up electrical cords and get into many things they aren’t supposed to, most of which are often harmful. They enjoy having a place to be that is their own (although it’s not something they enjoy at first. I have listed some tips below to help you in the crate training process and to help introduce the puppy to the crate as a positive place.

In the crate you will want to have a towel or blanket for the puppy to lay on. You will also want to have a potty pad or newspaper in there for when the puppy has an accident because it’s likely he/she will potty if left in there for more than a couple hours. I would recommend putting the potty area at the back of the crate and the blanket at the front, this way the puppy won’t have to walk through the potty area to get out of the crate.

Being the puppy is in a new place, you are the only familiar face to them, I would recommend putting their crate near you at night time, maybe even putting your fingers through the grids on the crate so they can feel you but they’re still in the crate.

Wear an old shirt for a while, get your smell on it and then at night time wrap them in it at bedtime or when you are gone for a period of time, that way they have your smell close to them.

Just to acclimate them to their crate and to get them to walk in it on their own, and at a time when you aren’t going to be actually leaving them, put a trail of treats on the floor and leading into their crate to lure them in, again, don’t close the door and lock them in, but just to give the crate a positive experience link and have them willingly go in. Do this a couple times a day in the first week or so.

Give him/her a toy in their crate, probably something cuddly rather than a chew toy. This might be a source of comfort or entertainment if you are gone for a few hours. Really like the SmartPet Snuggle Puppy microwave packs and heart beat.

Feed his/her meals near the crate, every couple days move the bowl closer to the crate, then just inside the crate, then towards the back of the crate.

You might want to put a blanket over the crate if it’s an open wire crate, this will create the den/cave effect and give it a cozy, safe, & secure feel.

Puppy proofing your home

Before a new puppy ever crosses the threshold of your home, you want to ensure your house and yard are Puppy Proof. Inspect all areas that will be accessible to your puppy by getting as close to the ground as possible, seeing your home at the same level a puppy sees it can put things in perspective. Move items that are unsafe or off-limits to your puppy out of reach, paying close attention for objects that may become inviting for your puppy to chew on. The following are specific things to look for when you puppy proof your home.

In your home

1. Put away floor plants, decorations, shoes, and clothing

Keep loose articles off the floor. You may think it’s cute to see your new puppy chewing on an old shoe, but it won’t be funny when he grabs a new one. He doesn’t know the difference, so don’t establish bad habits.

2. Put away objects on coffee tables, end tables, and low furniture

Puppies can and will put their paws on things until they’re properly trained. Make sure there’s nothing dangerous (or expensive) for them to knock over.

3. Lock up cupboards and secure hazardous materials

This includes stowing cleaning products, medications, paint products, and anything that could be poisonous to your puppy.

4. Secure phone wires and electric cords

You can wrap them in plastic sheathing or pvc tubing.

5. Have children put away toys and any parts or accessories

If the item is smaller than your puppy, it should be put away. If toys are left on the floor then it’s fair game for your pup. Puppies can not tell the difference between baby toys and puppy toys. Keeping the dog safe is a great incentive for kids to clean up after themselves.

In the yard

1. Clean up the yard

Make sure everything is picked up and check for other hazardous areas (pool, garden tools, etc)

2. Put away chemicals and potential poisons

This includes lawn fertilizers, insecticides, and paint products.

3. Check fencing for escape routes

Make sure there’s nowhere for your puppy to crawl under. Check for gaps around gates and fence sections and make sure your puppy can’t get his head stuck in them.

Taking the time to puppy proof your house and yard is a simple way to create a safe, friendly environment for the newest member of your pack.

The Health Benefits Of Coconut Oil For Dogs

Coconut oil is extremely popular these days. You may use it yourself as a health supplement, for cooking, as a homemade toothpaste or deodorant ingredient, to moisturize your skin or condition your hair.

Because of its antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, many people also use coconut oil for a number of medicinal purposes.

Although supplements can be a confusing topic for many dog owners, you probably know about the benefits of feeding Omega-3 oils like fish, krill or flaxseed oils to your dog. These oils contain essential fatty acids, which, as the name indicates, are essential to your dog’s health.

But other oils also support your dog’s health and coconut oil is one of them. The fats in coconut oil are considered “conditionally essential,” meaning that at under certain circumstances (such as during pregnancy and early growth) they are essential.

In fact, the Medium Chain Fatty Acids found in coconut milk are also in the breast milk of humans and other mammals, and coconut oil is an ingredient in many infant formulas.

Coconut oil is not an Omega-3 oil but it still has many health benefits for your dog. Keep reading to find out how it can boost your dog’s wellbeing.

What’s In Coconut Oil?

Coconut oil consists of more than 90% saturated fats. All fats and oils are composed of triglycerides. Coconut oil is composed primarily of Medium Chain Triglycerides. All triglycerides are made up of individual fat molecules called fatty acids. Coconut oil contains 64% Medium Chain Fatty Acids (MCFAs).

Breaking it down further, the MCFAs in coconut oil are made up of 48% lauric acid, 8% caprylic acid and 7% capric acid, plus myristic and palmitic acids.

Coconut oil also contains about 2% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and about 6% oleic acid (monounsaturated fatty acids). Most of coconut oil’s health benefits come from the MCFAs, especially lauric acid.

Lauric acid has antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Capric and caprylic acid have similar properties and are best known for their antifungal effects. In addition, the body can efficiently metabolize MCFAs to provide an immediate source of fuel and energy, enhancing athletic performance and aiding weight loss.

In dogs, the MCFAs in coconut oil balance the thyroid, helping overweight dogs lose weight and helping sedentary dogs feel energetic.

According to Dr Bruce Fife, certified nutritionist and naturopathic doctor and president of the Coconut Research Center, coconut oil gently elevates the metabolism, provides a higher level of energy and vitality, protects you from illness, and speeds healing. As a bonus, coconut oil improves any dog’s skin and coat, improves digestion, and reduces allergic reactions.

6 Health Benefits To Giving Your Dog Coconut Oil

Here are some ways giving your dog coconut oil regularly can support her health.

1. Skin

  • Clears up skin conditions such as eczema, flea allergies, contact dermatitis and itchy skin

  • Reduces allergic reactions and improves skin health

  • Makes coats sleek and glossyGets rid of doggy odor

  • Prevents and treats yeast and fungal infections, including candida

  • Disinfects cuts and promotes wound healing

  • Applied topically, promotes the healing of cuts, wounds, hot spots, dry skin and hair, bites and stings

  • Protects against fleas, ticks and mites

  • Soothes and heals dry cracked pads and elbow calluses

2. Digestive System

  • Improves digestion and nutrient absorption

  • Aids healing of digestive disorders like inflammatory bowel syndrome and colitis

  • Reduces or eliminates bad breath in dogs

  • Expels or kills parasites

3. Immune System

  • Contains powerful antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal agents that prevent infection and disease

  • May reduce risk of cancer

4. Endocrine/Metabolic System

  • Regulates and balances insulin and can help prevent or control diabetes

  • Promotes normal thyroid function

  • Increases energy and helps reduce weight

5. Musculoskeletal System

  • Helps build strong bones

  • Eases inflammation and can help with arthritis discomfort

6. Brain, Eyes, Ears and Mouth

  • Promotes good nerve and brain function and prevents dementia

  • Helps clear up ear and eye infections (let it melt and then use as eye drops, and also use topically in the ears)

  • Improves oral health and can be used to clean teeth.

What Kind Of Coconut Oil Should You Buy?

Choose Virgin or Extra Virgin coconut oil (they’re the same thing), preferably organic and sold in a glass (not plastic) jar. There’s another form of coconut oil called RBD, meaning refined, bleached and deodorized. It’s best to avoid RBD because it’s been heated and filtered, causing some potential loss of nutrients … but it may be an acceptable solution for dogs who just don’t like the taste of coconut oil, as it has a more neutral flavor.

Coconut oil will usually look white in the jar, but it may liquefy and turn clear on your kitchen counter. Or, if you add it to a smoothie with some frozen fruit, it will solidify fast and you may have little chunks of coconut oil in your smoothie. This is normal and you may see your oil turn to clear liquid and then go back to a white solid state again, depending on your room temperature.

How Much Coconut Oil Should You Give Your Dog?

As a daily supplement, work up to about 1 tsp per 10 lbs of body weight per day. Start with ¼ of this amount to avoid loose stool from the extra oil going through your dog’s digestive system, then increase gradually until you get to the recommended dose.

Note: Because of the essential fatty acids in Omega-3 oils, your dog will still need some Omega-3 oil as well a coconut oil. It’s a good idea to rotate coconut oil on alternate days or at different meals with your choice of Omega-3 oil, so that your dog gets the benefits of both types of oils.

For therapeutic or medicinal purposes, you may need to double the above dosage – but again, work up gradually until your dog’s system adapts to the extra oil in her diet. You might want to consult your holistic vet about the optimal dose for your dog’s size and health condition.

Some dogs love licking coconut oil off the spoon (or your hands!) but others prefer it mixed into food. Adding it to food can also help prevent digestive upset when you first start giving coconut oil to your dog.

Other Ways to Use Coconut Oil:

As A Repellent For Fleas And Other Insects
One little known use of coconut oil is to repel insects like fleas and ticks.It smells pleasant and is completely non-toxic. You can rub it into your dog’s coat before going for a walk in the woods to help repel ticks. Using it like this can also help make your dog’s coat soft and shiny!

To Eliminate Parasites
Dried, unsweetened coconut meat (from 1 or 2 Tbsp to ¼ cup added to food, depending on your dog’s size) has long been recommended as a safe, natural treatment to eliminate intestinal worms. But now there are reports that coconut oil can also have the same effect.

Pet owners who started giving their pets coconut oil as a supplement have reported seeing worms coming out in their animals’ stools. Some people use the dried coconut as well as coconut oil with very effective results.

To Combat Dog’s Yeasty Skin

Herbalist Rita Hogan recommends the following blend to help get rid of yeasty skin:

Coconut Oil Remedy For Yeast

Let extra virgin coconut oil melt in a small glass bottle holding about 8 oz

Add 10 drops of lavender essential oil and 2 drops of lemon essential oil

Shake to mix

Massage it into your dog’s skin once a week or more often as needed

This coconut oil mix will last several months. Store it in a dark place..

What About Other Forms Of Coconut?

You can give your dog the benefit of coconut in other ways too.

Coconut Meat
If you buy whole coconuts your dog may enjoy eating a piece of coconut meat … or you can save yourself the trouble of cracking open the coconut and buy fresh or dried coconut meat (be sure to get the unsweetened kind). One cup of fresh shredded coconut contains about 2 Tbsp of coconut oil, and a cup of dried shredded coconut equals about 3.5 Tbsp of coconut oil.

Coconut Milk
This is another good way to give coconut to your dog. One 14 oz can of coconut milk contains about 5 Tbsp of coconut oil. But be careful what you buy … a lot of coconut milks sold in stores have additives like sugar, preservatives and emulsifiers, which you’ll want to avoid. Don’t use the coconut milk beverages in cartons that you’ll find in the refrigerated or dairy sections of the store as they have very little actual coconut milk in them, and lots of added water and sugar instead.

Coconut Water
It’s fine to give coconut water regularly to your dog. Again, make sure you’re buying a product with no added sugar or chemicals. Coconut water is also a great natural source of electrolytes. Homeopathic veterinarian Dee Blanco DVM recommends the following mixture to rehydrate your dog if she gets overheated on a summer day:

Rehydration Drink For Dogs

1 cup of coconut water

About ¼ to ½ tsp of sea salt (choose a good quality sea salt like Celtic or Himalayan)

Add some natural sparkling mineral water like Perrier or San Pellegrino.

The sparkling water is the important part as the bubbles help get the electrolytes into your dog’s cells more quickly.

You can syringe the mixture into your dog’s mouth if necessary


D.E. for Pets and Animals

Diatomaceous Earth is a popular natural flea control solution for dogs and cats. Find out how diatomaceous earth can help your pets and animals today.

Diatomaceous earth is a plant-based powder that occurs naturally within the earth. The powder gets its unique name because it’s derived from “diatoms”, which are algae-like plants that have existed on earth for millions of years.

As diatoms broke down over the years, they left behind a chalky white powder called diatomite. Today, diatomaceous earth manufacturers harvest this powder, combine it with other diatom derivatives, and release it as diatomaceous earth.

The earth is popular for all sorts of different purposes, including gardening (where it acts as a natural insecticide) and house cleaning (where it helps fight off bed bugs, cockroaches, and other bug problems).

Today, more and more pet owners are also using diatomaceous earth to solve flea-related problems in pets.

Benefits of Using Diatomaceous Earth on your Pets

Many pet owners use diatomaceous earth as a natural pest-killer on dogs. Just like diatomaceous earth fights pests in your garden and home, it can also fight pests on your cats and dogs.

Best of all, diatomaceous earth kills pests using natural methods instead of a chemical-based toxic solution.

If you’re using diatomaceous earth on your dogs or cats, then be sure to use food-grade DE instead of filter grade. Filter-grade diatomaceous earth is the stuff typically used in pools and it can damage your pet (it has a higher silica content and is not suited for human or animal use).

Food-grade diatomaceous earth isn’t just safe for pets: you can safely ingest it as well! So if you like being extra careful about what you give your pet, then there’s nothing wrong with DE.

There are two ways to use diatomaceous earth on your pets:

Feeding Diatomaceous Earth to your Dogs and Cats Can Eliminate:

— Roundworm— Whipworms— Pinworms— Hookworms

If you’re feeding diatomaceous earth to your pet, then you should feed the animal for at least 30 days. This will destroy adult worms while also targeting hatchling eggs and smaller worms throughout the lungs and stomach.

Dusting your Pet’s Fur with Diatomaceous Earth Can:

— Control External Parasites, Like Fleas And Flies— Kill Any Ticks And Eggs In Fur— Be Applied To Your Pet’s Fur Or To The Bedding And Carpet Areas Wherever Your Pet Lies Down

In addition to targeting pests and critters, there’s also some evidence that diatomaceous earth can absorb methyl mercury, e-coli, endotoxins, viruses, organophosphate pesticide residues, drug residues, and the bacteria created by intestinal infections. This can make it an effective overall cleanser for your pet.

How to Use Diatomaceous Earth on your Pet

As a Food

— For dogs, you should add one tablespoon per day of food-grade diatomaceous earth to dog food for dogs over 55 pounds.

— For puppies, smaller dogs, and normal-sized cats, use one teaspoon per day.

— Larger cats (cats over 13 pounds) can safely be given 1 ½ teaspoons of food-grade DE. Kittens and smaller cats (2 to 6 ½ pounds) can be given ½ teaspoon of food-grade DE.

Some pets may be picky when they see a white powder in their food and they might refuse to eat it. If that’s the case, then recommends adding the DE directly to the bag of cat or dog food. Then, shake the bag to distribute the powder evenly throughout the food. This will mask the scent. To use the right dosage of DE, simply take note of the number of servings in the bag of food, then multiply the appropriate DE dosage by the number of servings and add that amount to the bag.

If that doesn’t work, then you may want to try mixing a dosage of DE with a quarter cup of water. Then, pour it over your cat’s food.

As a Powder Coating

If you’re using diatomaceous earth externally to control parasites, simply rub the diatomaceous earth powder into your dog’s coat to control fleas while also sprinkling it on the bedding. You should wear a dust mask when applying the diatomaceous earth powder, as it can irritate your lungs and mucous membranes in your nose.

Some pet owners prefer the powder coating method instead of the food coating method because cats and dogs lick off the powder anyway. As the animal licks the powder off their fur, it works as an internal cleanser as well.

After a few days of leaving DE on your dog’s skin, it’s time to bathe them and vacuum the area you covered with DE. This will collect any dead bugs (and half-dead bugs) that may still be lying around.

Thoroughly shampoo your dog or cat. Consider using a soap-free shampoo or moisturizing shampoo. Since diatomaceous earth dries out the skin, your pet’s skin, is likely a little dehydrated, so you should avoid drying out their skin even further.

After your dog or cat has been washed and dried, comb through the fur with a flea comb to help remove any fleas and eggs that may have been left behind.

How Does Diatomaceous Earth Work?

Diatomaceous earth works by physically attacking harmful parasites inside your pet. Instead of killing these pests using toxic chemicals, the diatomaceous earth actually targets them using microscopic sharp edges in its particles. These microscopic sharp edges tear apart the bug’s exoskeleton, then lodge themselves on the bug to dry it out. This kills the bug.

Fortunately, these microscopic sharp edges are too small to harm dogs, cats, or humans. You can safely rub food-grade diatomaceous earth between your fingers without cutting yourself. It passes through your dog or cat’s body without any negative effects.

The dosage for dogs is as follows:

*Very small dogs should receive 1/2 teaspoon.
*Dogs under 50 pounds - 1 teaspoon.
*Dogs 50 to 100 pounds - 1 tablespoon.
*Dogs more than 100 pounds - 1 to 2 tablespoons.


Early Spay Neuter: 3 Reasons To Reconsider

The topic of spay/neuter is emotionally charged for many pet owners. It’s become the “responsible” thing to do and we commonly hear of the benefits of this surgery but rarely the risks. When savvy pet owners avoid early spay/neuter (or forego it altogether), to mitigate that risk, they’re frequently vilified for contributing to the pet overpopulation problem. But decisions made on emotion aren’t usually the best kinds of decisions we can make. Indulge me while I take an objective and scientific look at what’s causing all the fuss.

We’ll start with the most recent reason to reconsider spay/neuter.

In February 2014, a study was completed on over 2500 Vizsla dogs and the results were a blow to those who vehemently defend spay/neuter. But this latest study is just the most recent of a long line of work showing that removing a quarter of the dog’s endocrine system might not be in the dog’s best interest – and maybe not even in the best interests of rescues and shelters.

Let’s look at what this research shows as the three most important reasons you should reconsider spay/neuter.

1. Spay/Neuter and Joint Disease We’ll get to the Vizsla study that I mentioned later. They didn’t investigate the link between spay/neuter and joint disease, but they didn’t really need to – there was already plenty of research showing the link

Hip Dysplasia

A study on Golden Retrievers found that male dogs who were neutered before 12 months of age had double the risk of hip dysplasia than their intact counterparts (Torres de la Riva G, Hart BL, Farver TB, Oberbauer AM, Messam LLM, et al. (2013) Neutering Dogs: Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers in Golden Retrievers) Other research shows that dogs sterilized before the age of six months have a 70% increased risk of developing hip dysplasia. The authors of this study (Spain et al, JAVMA 2004), propose that …it is possible that the increase in bone length that results from early-age gonadectomy results in changes in joint conformation, which could lead to a diagnosis of hip dysplasia.

There’s even more evidence that spay/neuter can increase the risk of hip dysplasia. Van Hagen et al (Am J Vet Res, Feb 2005), found that of the sample dogs diagnosed with hip dysplasia, those that were neutered six months prior to the diagnosis were nearly twice as likely to develop hip dysplasia.Interestingly, a study by Dannuccia et al (Calcif Tissue Int, 1986), found that removing the ovaries of Beagles caused increased remodeling of the pelvic bone, which also suggests an increased risk of hip dysplasia with spay.

Cruciate Ligament TearsCranial cruciate ligament tears have also been linked to spay/neuter in numerous studies.The Golden Retriever study found that although there were no cases of cruciate tear in the intact dogs, 5% of males neutered before 12 months and 8% of females did suffer tears.Whitehair et al (JAVMA Oct 1993), found that spayed and neutered dogs of any age were twice as likely to suffer cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Slauterbeck et al also found an increased risk (Clin Orthop Relat Res Dec 2004). Chris Zinc DVM PhD DACVP explains,…if the femur has achieved its genetically determined normal length at eight months when a dog gets spayed or neutered, but the tibia, which normally stops growing at 12 to 14 months of age continues to grow, then an abnormal angle may develop at the stifle. In addition, with the extra growth, the lower leg below the stifle likely becomes heavier (because it is longer), and may cause increased stresses on the cranial cruciate ligament.

Additionally, sterilization can cause a loss of bone mass (Martin et al, Bone 1987), and obesity (Edney et al, Vet Rec Apr 1986).Both of these factors could lead to an increased risk of cranial cruciate ligament tear and hip dysplasia. Furthermore, spayed/neutered dogs are greater than three times more likely to suffer from patellar luxation (Vidoni et al, Wien Tierartztl Mschr 2005).

But there are even more sinister issues with spay/neuter

2. Spay/Neuter and CancerContrary to popular belief, we can’t spay/neuter cancer and, in fact, this surgery largely increases the risk of many common canine cancers.

MALES vs FEMALES: The Golden Retriever study looked at cancer rates and found that the incidence of lymphosarcoma was three times higher in males neutered before 12 months of age. Interestingly the percentage of hemangiosarcoma in females spayed after 12 months was four times higher than that of intact and even early-spayed females. Additionally, 6% of females spayed after 12 months were affected with mast cell cancer, while there were zero cases among the intact females. These results are similar to other studies. The more recent Vizsla study found that spayed females had significantly higher rates of hemangiosarcoma (nine times higher) than intact females. They also found that spayed/neutered dogs were 3.5% more likely to suffer mast cell cancer and 4.3 times more likely to suffer lymphoma. (M. Christine Zink, DVM, PhD et al., Evaluation of the risk and age of onset of cancer and behavioral disorders in gonadectomized Vizslas. JAVMA, Vol 244, No. 3, February 1, 2014)SPAYED vs INTACT: In fact, the incidence of all cancers in spayed females was 6.5 times higher and in neutered males was 3.6 times higher than intact dogs. YOUNG DOGS: They also found that the younger the dogs were spayed/neutered, the younger they were when diagnosed with cancer.

Waters et al. (Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs) found similar results in their study of female Rottweilers. The researchers set out to determine whether retaining the ovaries contributed to longevity. In Rottweilers, the major causes of death are sarcoma and other cancers, which account for 38% and 73% of deaths respectively After excluding all cancer deaths, females who kept their ovaries during the first seven years of life were more than nine times more likely to reach exceptional longevity than females with the shortest ovary exposure. Although intact female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity, that advantage was erased with spay.

3. Spay/Neuter and Behavior

Although spay/neuter had been previously linked to cognitive impairment and even a three fold risk of hypothyroidism, which often creates behavior changes, the Viszla study yielded some particularly interesting insight into this link.In the study, spayed and neutered dogs were also more likely to develop behavior disorders than intact dogs.

This included: fear of storms, separation anxiety, fear of noises, timidity, excitability, aggression, hyperactivity, fear biting.

Another study found neutered dogs were more: aggressive, fearful, excitable, less trainable than intact dogs

(Parvene Farhoody @ M. Christine Zink, Behavioral and Physical Effects of  Spaying and Neutering Domestic Dogs, May 2010)

This is contrary to the popular belief that neutering reduces aggression and other behavior problems.

There’s Nothing Routine About Spay/Neuter These findings also present a conundrum for shelters and rescues who advocate spay/neuter. Although reducing the number of dogs in shelters is an important goal, it’s more important to prevent them from ending up at the shelter. While most people believe that shelters are full because of over population, behavior problems are the most common reason owners give up their dogs.

Moreover, is it fair for shelters to burden adoptive families with the increased risk of cancer and joint disease? There are alternatives to the complete removal of the reproductive organs and this might play a role in reducing the risk of cancer, joint disease and behavior issues. Spay is “instant menopause” and immediately shuts off the supply of protective hormones that are obviously involved in much more than just reproduction. Modified spay/neuter surgeries have less impact on the hormones and endocrine system, so dogs will enjoy more protection, even when sterilized.

Hormones produced by the reproductive organs not only are essential for reproduction, but in the development of:

-homeostasis -body condition -cholesterol levels -energy levels -urinary continence -muscle tone -cognition -behavior -and, most importantly, they also play a role in the immune system

The rise in the risk of many cancers in response to the removal of the reproductive organs is evidence of this. OTHER OPTIONS In females, a partial spay, or ovary-sparing spay or tubal ligation are safer options. In males, vasectomy can also be a safer option. There is also a zinc injection that has recently come into favor. Hopefully this research will encourage more shelters to look into these safer and less intrusive options.

Finally, if your goal is to give your dog the best chance at a life free of joint disease, cancer and behavior issues, then keeping your dog intact is certainly an option. If you’re thoughtful and caring enough to get this far in the article, you’re certainly thoughtful enough to manage an intact dog. Simply make certain your intact male isn’t allowed to wander and keep your intact female on leash for a few weeks when she is in estrus. Removing a significant part of your dog’s endocrine system should be anything but routine. As research continues to show the damning results of spay/neuter, it’s certainly in your dog’s best interests for you to consider these three important reasons to keep your best friend just the way mother nature made him.

Spay/neuter and the association with cancer in dogs: part one By Susan Ettinger, DVM, Dip. ACVIM (Oncology) Updated: November 26th, 2018

In the US, there is widespread recommendation for early spay and neuter. But recently the association of spay/neutering and cancer in dogs has been in the news again. Specifically the concern is that spay/neutering increases the risk of cancer, which brings into question this recommendation to spay/neuter at 6 months of age. We are going to look into this complicated issue is this series.

I started to learn more about this when I joined Dr. Dressler and we began to prepare and edit the 2nd edition of The Dog Cancer Survival Guide. The studies were interesting, but contradicted what I learned in vet school at Cornell.

This was also just AFTER I had spayed my own seven-month-old Labrador puppy, Matilda. I began to question my decision as I explored the pros and cons of early spay/neutering. Let’s see why.

Spaying Female Dogs Lowers Breast Cancer Risk

We have known for awhile that hormones may promote or inhibit cancers, depending on the sex of the dog and the tissue or organ.

Less exposure to female sex hormones has been shown to be protective against breast cancers in dogs, which is important since mammary cancer is the second most common form of dog cancer.

Breast cancers can be nearly completely eliminated by spaying a female dog before the first heat. (On average, the first heat arrives at six months of age and recurs approximately every six months until late in life.)

Spaying provides less protection for canine breast cancer with every passing heat. Studies have shown that dogs spayed before the first heat have a 0.05% risk of developing mammary cancer, when compared to intact female dogs, which means the risk is almost completely eliminated by the surgery.

If the spay happens between the first and second heats, female dogs still have quite a bit of protection, with only an 8%  risk, compared to their intact sisters.

If the spay happens between the third and fourth heat, female dogs have a 26% risk, compared to intact dogs.

Clearly, spaying a female dog reduces her risk of mammary cancer. It also removes all risk for ovarian and uterine cancer.

So based on this, which is what I learned in vet school, I should feel good about my decision to spay my Matilda, right? We will come back to that.

Neutering Males Lowers Testosterone-Related Tumors

What about male dogs?

Neutering definitely decreases the risk of benign perianal adenomas, which are stimulated by testosterone. As testosterone levels increase, glands called sebaceous glands get bigger, and so dogs can get these benign perianal adenomas. (Perianal means beside the anus.)

These benign butt tumors are seen most commonly in certain breeds, including Arctic breeds, Beagles, Cocker Spaniels, Shih Tzus, and English Bulldogs.

In addition to lowering the risk of developing benign adenomas, neutering your dog also eliminates his risk for testicular cancer. Testosterone-secreting tumors in the testicles can also lead to those benign butt tumors. Interestingly, perianal adenomas have also been reported in female spayed dogs who have with adrenal tumors (yep, you guessed it, they secrete testosterone).

The treatment of perianal tumors is castration. Remove the source of testosterone, and the tumors often resolve. If the tumor does not go away or significantly shrink, then we recommend removing the anal gland tumor. In fact, >90% of dogs are cured with castration and/or tumor resection.

Other Benefits of Spay/Neuter

In addition to the benefits above, spay/neuter also helps to reduce uterine infections (pyometras), and, in some cases, unwanted behaviors like humping, marking, and aggression.

Early spay/neuter is also important in population control and preventing the euthanasia of unwanted pets.  If you just look at these factors, early spaying and neutering might seem like an obvious choice.

But … Spay/Neuter Increases Risk for More Aggressive Cancers

But recently, there is evidence that less exposure to sex hormones, while protecting against the cancers named above, actually increases the dog’s risk for other aggressive cancers, including osteosarcoma, bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, lymphoma, and mast cell tumors.

And to further complicate the mammary tumor and early spay recommendation, this recommendation was recently questioned in an article called, Effect of neutering on the risk of mammary tumors in dogs – a systematic review (Beauvais, JSAP, 2012).

In a review of the studies that were used to make the recommendation for early spay/neuter, the evidence in favor of the practice was judged to be weak.

The article stated: “Due to the limited evidence available and the risk of bias in the published results, the evidence that neutering reduces the risk of mammary neoplasia, and the evidence that age at neutering has an effect, are judged to be weak and are not a sound basis for firm recommendations.”

So … maybe what I learned in vet school about early spay/neuter was not so straightforward after all! Join me for my next blog to learn how sex hormone can be PROTECTIVE against certain cancers.

Live longer, live well,

Dr Sue


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